SS2 Biology Scheme Of Work For 2022/2023

Biology Scheme of work

in our previous post, we provided you with the ss1 biology scheme of work, in this article our focus will be based on the ss2 biology scheme of work. In case you have not read or have not gotten the ss1 biology scheme you can get it from the above red link.

A good biology teacher should familiarize his/herself with the appropriate topics to be taught in class throughout the term, majority of teacher teaches without taking it upon themselves to get the best scheme of work before teaching, this prompts us to get you the most recent and we’ll organized scheme for you in order to be able to teach appropriately in line with an approved scheme

First Term SS2 Biology Scheme Of Work


Digestive System
Types of alimentary tracts, Similarities, and differences in the alimentary canals of different animals, Digestive system, and digestion in man
Teachers used the dissected specimens, models, or charts, to teach the alimentary canals of plenaries, earthworms, grasshoppers, birds, rabbits,
Learners observed the learning materials and compare the various alimentary canals

Transport System
Needs for transportation, Material for transportation, e.g. food oxygen, etc. media of transportation (cytoplasm lymph blood, etc. Composition and function of blood and lymph 

The circulatory system in mammals
Structure of the mammalian heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries, types, and mechanisms in circulation, open and close circulation, single and double circulation 
The teacher explains the structure of an artery, vein, etc. using well label diagrams, mounts a slide of blood smear and transverse section of an artery and vein
Learners examine and draw dissected specimens

Mechanism of transport in higher plants, absorption, and transport of water and mineral salts, transpiration, and translocation
The teacher guides learners to set up an experiment showing the absorption of water in higher plants 
Learners observe the experiment and make inferences

Respiratory System
Types and structures of the respiratory system ( body surface, gills, trachea systems, lungs, characteristics of the respiratory surface. Mechanism of respiratory, Lower animals ( amoeba, paramecium, etc.), Higher animals (toad, fish, man, etc.) Plants.
The teacher mounts prepared slides showing the respiratory organs of earthworms, tilapia, toads, grasshoppers, and rats. Display the gills removed from a dead tilapia for learners to observe the various structures, discusses respiratory movement in higher and lower animals and plants
Learners observe the respiratory organs of the various animals, Observe the gill rackers, gill arc and gill filaments, and raw, make note of the respiratory mechanism, observe and record their observation

Excretory System
Definition of excretion, Structure of excretion in a living organism, Waste products of metabolism, Forms in which waste products are excreted.
Teachers discuss the various excretory system with the learners, Ask the learner to observe the malpighian tubules in a dissected cockroach, and the Excretory system in a dissected rat. The internal structure of a dissected kidney of a sheep or pig
Display charts of the nephron to learners, lead them to identify the different parts, and related the identified parts to the functions they perform
Learners to take part in the discussion, Observe and draw the Malpighian tubules, the excretory system of the rat, and the internal structure of the kidney of a sheep or pig, Relate the parts identified to their functions
Observe the slide, record the observations and make a labeled diagram of the guard cells and the stomata

Nutrient Cycling In Nature
Carbon and oxygen cycles (The definition, process, and importance of the carbon cycle )
The oxygen cycle (The process and importance of oxygen cycling
The carbon-oxygen balance
The definition and process of the water cycle
The teacher leads the learners to list the carbon of carbon (iv) oxide, experiment to show the absorption of carbon (iv) oxide and release of oxygen during photosynthesis and release of oxygen during photosynthesis, and demonstrated the experiment that shows the presence of water in expired air and discusses the water cycle with a well-drawn chart
Learners list the source of carbon (iv) oxide, Draw the carbon cycle, observe the experiment and describe the conclusion of water in expired air and draw the water cycle.

The nitrogen cycle
Importance of nitrogen to plants and animals, The process of nitrogen cycling, Decomposition in nature, Macro composer, and Role of decomposed
The teacher explains the nitrogen cycle and its importance with the aid of a well-drawn chart mounts experiment to show that gases like carbon(iv) oxide ammonia are released during decomposition and Heat energy is released during decomposition
Learners draw the nitrogen cycle, observe the results and record their observations, identified the gases released

Ecological Management
Types of association symbiosis, parasitism, predation mutualism, commensalisms. Features of biological importance possessed by organisms of an association
The teacher provided specimens of root nodules for symbiosis and Ascaris for parasitism, the learners were asked to collect ticks from cows or dog
Learners study the root nodule and the Ascaris and record their characteristics and feature, collecting ticks from cows or dogs.

Definition of tolerance, concepts of minimum and maximum range to tolerance, geographic range graph illustrating maximums and minimum range of tolerance
The teacher guides learners to perform experiments that should limit of tolerance of tilapia and draws a typical tolerance range graph
learners subject tilapia fish to different concentrations of salt solution and record their observation of the rate of operations and also study the graph
11-13Revision and examination

Summary Of First Term Of SS2 Biology Scheme Of Work

The article below is the summary of behavioural objectives, it summarizes all that the Learners should know at the end of the term and each paragraph reviews what the students should know each week. This means at the end of the term the student should be able to;

Describe with appropriate illustration different types of alimentary tracts

explain the necessity of a transport system in a complex organism, identify the source of material and where they are transported to, and discuss the different types of transport media, such as cytoplasm, the cell sap, lymph, and blood

describe the structure of arteries veins and capillaries, and name two transportation media in large animals

Compare and contrast various mechanisms of transportation, demonstrate experimentally the flow of materials in plant

Describe the different types of respiratory systems, List the characteristic of a respiratory surface, Draw and label some animals, Explain the various mechanisms of respiration in some animals, e.g. mammals, Describe the mechanism of the exchange of gases through the stomata of plants

Identify and describe different types of excretory systems in plants and animals, Explain the mechanism of some of the excretory organs and relate structure to functions 

Describe how carbon circulates nature, Draw the carbon cycle in detail, state the importance of the carbon cycle to life, Recognize the delicate balance between carbon and oxygen, Describe the played by plants and animals in the water cycle, draw the water cycle

Describe with the aid of a diagram the role of nitrogen in plants and animals, State the process of nitrogen cycling, State that energy can be obtained by decomposing substances, identify the gases produced during the decay

Define symbiosis, parasitism, predating mutualism, Identify beneficial, harmful, and neutral forms of association among organisms, and give examples of each association

define tolerance, state, why living things possess, arrange of tolerance of environmental factors, list the abiotic factors that impose tolerance organism, depict with a graph

Second Term SS2 Biology Scheme Of Work


Definition of adaptation (adaptation-informed function at living organism due to environmental conditions), effects of availability of water adaptive modifications, structural adaptation (fish, tadpole, toad lizard, snail, crab prawn, and birds
Teachers ask the learners to examine the root of hibiscus and the roots of water weeds (Elodea), places chameleon against different backgrounds, and guides the learners to attach lymph of plasticine to the base of two water weeds, later weeds later drop into a tall gas jar containing water and leave the other one on the table, learners we’re asked to compare tadpole fish, fished toad, sparrow, and owl Learners observe the difference in the habitat of the two plants (hibiscus and water weeds

Pollution definition of pollution and pollutants types of pollution ( Air water soil land), sources, causes, and effects of different types of pollution control of different of pollution control (air, water)The teacher leads the learners to set up experiments on pollution and set up jars of pure water for drinking, In each jar place mosquito larvae, and tadpoles, also lead the learner to visit an industrial state to study industrial waste and their effects
The learner observes the effects of the pollutant on the organisms in the jars, observe the various effects of industrial waste on the environments

Conservation Of Natural Resources Definition of conservation of natural resources, Natural resources that need to be conserved. ( renewable and non-renewable resources ), Reasons for Conservation, Ways of ensuring conservation of natural resources, Benefits,s and Problems associated with the conservation of natural resources  The teacher discusses the problem and difficulties of conservation with learners and leads them to suggest a possible solution, Passes around the conservation law document, Shows films or documentaries on gas flaming oil spillage
The learner discusses the problem and difficulties of conservation in class and suggests possible solutions aspect considering; Economic and social development and Over grassing

Reproductive System In Vertebrates
Reproductive system in fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals, Structure and parts of the male and female reproductive systems,
Structures of the male gametes ( sperms ) and the female gametes (oven)
Teachers present to the learner dissected male and female vertebrates, and the reproductive organs, and use the dissected specimens to explain the functions of the organs of the reproductive system (male and female)  Learners draw and examine the reproductive organs in the given specimens, draw, examine the specimens and note the functions, compare the male reproductive system with the female reproductive system, view the male gamete they draw and label the specimen

Reproductive System In Vertebrates Cont.
Differences between male and female reproductive organs, the structural difference in the eggs of vertebrates, Compare of reproduction in fish reptiles, and mammals.
With the aid of the diagram of the male and female reproductive organs of a rat, the teacher leads the learner to distinguish between male and female reproductive organs in mammals in tabular form, displays the eggs of some vertebrates (toad, fish, chitin, and lizard) Learners distinguish between male and female reproductive organs in mammals, examine the structural differences in the eggs and record their functions

Reproductive System In Plants Structures and functions of the reproductive organs of plants, Arrangements of the reproductive organs in different plants, types, Parts, and structures of flowers Definition, types/kinds of placentation (marginal parietal free-central, axile and basal placentation)Teachers ask learners to examine the various parts of a flower provided., Describe each part and point out the essential and non-essential parts, Clarify the various reproductive organs of a flower and the position of the ovary in each flower, Prepares the transverse section and longitudinal section of ovaries for learners to observe with a hand lens Learners examine the various parts of either allemande or pride of Barbados or hibiscus and grass, Draw the position of various ovaries, examine the slide with a hand lens and note the different kinds of placentation.

Pollination In Plants
Definition and types of pollination, features of self-pollinated and cross-pollinated flowers, agents of pollination (water, insects, wind, animals)
The teacher asks the learners to study flowers of different kinds and with a diagram, relate the position of the stigma and stamens to the type of pollination, examine the nature of the pollen grain, and explain the agent of pollination learners should note the position of the stigma and the stamens, draw the diagrams, studying the flowers as directed by the teachers, prepare and examine slides

Regulation Of Internal Environment Homeostatic organ (substance involves in homeostatic) kidney (structure, functions, and diseases, effects of kidney diseases and the remedies) The liver (structure function and disease of the liver, bile products, effects and treatments of liver diseases)The teacher dissects a small mammal to show the liver and the kidney, learners examine dissected vertebrates, e.g. rabbits, and note the following; structure and position of the kidney and liver, relative positions of other

Endocrine Glands Animal hormones (definition of hormones, types of animal hormones and function of hormones, effects of overproduction or urethra production of the hormones) Plants hormones (types and function of plant hormones, effects of Auxins on lateral bud development, leaf of irritation of an adventitious root, modern application of auxin in agriculture )Teachers show learners chats and photograph that highlight the distinction between endocrine glands, and perform experiments to show the roles  played by auxins on shoots (phototropism ) and roots (geotropism)
learners observe the distribution of endocrine glands on chats and photographs

The Skin Definition of the skin, the structure of the mammalian skin, regulation by the body temperature of the skin, diseases, and care of the skinTeachers show learners the details structure of the mammalian skin under the microscope
learners observe and draw the mammalian skin, fan themselves and observe sweat on human skin and the cooling effects on skin
11-13Revision and examination

Summary Of Second Term Of SS2 Biology Scheme Of Work

Kindly read the below behavioural objective for more understanding. At the end of this term, students should be able to;

Define adaptation, state that adaptation may be a modification in response to environmental factors, describe the availability of water as the principal factor for plant and animal distribution list examples of adaptation to environmental factors

define and mentions all types of pollution and pollutant, enumerate the harmful effect, source, cause, and effects of different types of pollution, and list the control of different types of pollution in the air, water salt, and land
Name climate and industrial wastes that pollute land and water

Define conservation, and Enumerates reasons for the protection of lands and wide lives from destruction and extinction, A statewide variety of conservation laws should be obeyed,

Discuss problems and difficulties associated with conservation. Discuss the need to conserve petroleum and natural gas, State methods of conservation of a given natural resources 

Identify the various parts of the male and female reproductive systems, Describes the structures and the function of the male and female reproductive organs of vertebrates, and Draw, label, and describe the structure of male and female gametes (sperm and Oven).

distinguish between male and female reproductive organs in fish, birds, toads, reptiles, and mammals. State the structural difference in the gas of vertebrates

Identify reproductive organs in plants, Distinguish between the essential and non-essential parts of a flower, describe the various organs of a flower, Illustrate the different kinds of placentation
define pollination, name and describe the different types of pollination, list the features that aid self-pollination, state the agents of pollination, state the characteristics of wind-pollinated and insect-pollinated flowers

list the main organ and substances involved in the homeostatic (control mechanism ), and describe the structure and function of these organs: kidney and liver, name some kidney diseases and explain their symptoms and effects, name some liver diseases and briefly explain their symptoms and effect, discuss the remedy for unhealthy conditions (kidney and liver)  

explain the meaning of hormones, list some endocrine glands, their position in the body, and their functions

state the functions of the mammalian skin, draw and label the main structures of the skin

Third Term SS2 Biology Scheme Of Work


Nervous Coordination
Meaning of coordination, Differences between the nervous system and endocrine system, The nervous system in mammals (CNS(central nervous system), PNS (peripheral nervous system )), Position, structure, and functions of the brain
The teacher leads the learner to dissect a small vertebrate to display the brain(in the skull), exposes the brain to show the color of the outer part
learners observe the brain in a dissected vertebrate, observe the differences in the structure of the brain

Continuation Of Nervous Coordination
The position, structures, and functions of the spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, structure and function of the nervous system
Teachers provide a chart showing the PNS of a mammal and show learners permanent slides and charts of a neuron
learners observe the spinal cord in dissected vertebrates, observe differences in the structure of the brain and spinal cord, and draw and label the different types of neurons, noting the differences in position structure and basic parts

Reflex and voluntary action (definition, characteristics, and examples of reflex and voluntary action), simple reflex arc coordinated reflex [par lox  (1910)] experiments on dogs, food, and bell and differences between a reflex action and a coordinated reflexThe teacher guides the learners to perform experiments to show the reflex action slicking of a handkerchief across the learner’s eyes and guides the learners to experiment with coordinated reflex
Learners explain experiments on reflex action, observe and record their observation of coordinated reflex

Sense Organ
organ of smell (the mechanism of smelling with the help of ovary chemoreception and adaptation for survival), organ of taste (taste buds on the tongue and parts played in tasting), the skin as a sense organ (structure of the ear and part played by `its various parts, care of the ears)
The teacher leads the learners to perceive the releasing of a smell into the air (e.g.NH3), leads learners to taste bitter leaf, salt, and sugar brought from home, applies various objects on learners’ skin for a sensation of touch, shows charts of an LS of the skin.
Learners smell the released gas, Notes areas of the tongue which are sensitive to sweetness, bitterness, etc., and Draw well-labeled drawing of the LS of the skin

Organ of sight 
The eyes and their various parts (functions of the eyes and part played by light, image formation, and accommodation, Eye defects (myopia, hyper myopia pres. Biopic, astigmatism, cataract, night blindness, and Care of the eye)
With the aid of charts, the teacher explains the cause and effect of the myopic and hyper metro pic on image formation, Uses charts to explain the correction of myopic and astigmatism with the aid of a concave lens, convex lens, and cylindrical lens. 
Learners identify the parts of the eye
Study the pathway of light during image formation and the placement of the lens in front of the original lens to correct eye defects

Ecology Population
Succession (Meaning of succession Structural chaise in species composition variety and increase in number)
As the biology teacher map out an area on bare ground and another lawn that has been cleared (within the school premises) Take students to a nearby pond.
Learners study succession on both pieces of land and record findings over time (about two weeks), compare the available space of movement of each member of the class when only the class members are present Members of another class are added.

Ecology Population Cont.
Overcrowding, Population density, are Importance features affecting population space. Relationship between competition and succession, Factors that may cause overcrowding, e.g. mortality, reduce death rate, absence of predators, Adaptation to avoid overcrowding
Teachers to describe what they think will happen in poultry where the feed for the chicks was reduced from 10 bags to 2 bags a day, Display a chart showing agents and means of dispersal.
LearnersObserve the behavior of five students sharing a small seat, Write an essay on the effects of reducing the feed supplied to poultry from 10 to 2 bags a day.

Balance In Nature
Factors affecting population (Abiotic and Biotic factors), Dynamic equilibrium in nature and factors that maintain it, density-independent factors like the availability of food, family planning natural and artificial methods used by man to control his population
Map out an area, and lawn within the school compound for studying, Plant, seedlings to show inter-specific competition, and Display a chart showing family planning methods
Learners note the different populations of organisms that inhabit a given lawn.

Reproductive System And Reproduction In Humans
Reproductive system in males and females (human) and functions of its various parts, The structure of male sperm cells, and the structure of the ovum
Fertilization, Fusion of gamete, Implantation, Similarities, and differences between the male and female reproductive systems, and Differences between sperm and egg.

Development of embryo (The selective exchange between mother and child, Removal of excretory products from the fetus, Survival conditions like food, oxygen, amniotic fluid, placenta, and umbilical cord, Reproductive health, Types of harmful traditional incision female genital mutilation(F.G.M), Care of reproductive organs, Importance of prenatal care.
Effect of STIs and HIV and AIDS on fetus and infant, Risk involves in child delivery, Importance of breastfeeding, Cause of infant mortality, birth defect, and health-related problems, Importance of knowledge of genetic disorders in family
The teacher shows charts of the male and female reproductive system
Learners identify the different reproductive organs in the system
Explain the process of fertilization in man, List the conditions necessary for survival, State the types of a traditional incision
11-13Revision and examination

Summary Of Third Term Of SS2 Biology Scheme Of Work

When you scroll down you are provided with what the students should know at the end of the term. We decide to make a summary of the contents for an easy glance through. As the terms go to an end the learner should be familiar with;

State the differences between the nervous and endocrine systems, Locate the position of the CNS in a dissected vertebrate, Define the CNS and PNS Describe the structure of the brain, and list the functions of its various organs.

describe the spinal cords and list their functions, state the structural differences between the brain and the spinal cord, identify the PNS and describe its functions, describe a typical neuron group neuron according to the functions as found in vertebrates, explain the process of impulse transmission

Distinguish between a reflex action and a coordinate reflex action given a few examples of each
list the major sense organs of smell and taste, identify the different parts of the tongue associated with sweetness, bitterness, salty taste, and sour taste, and draw the skin showing the different receptors present

Explain the function of the eye, Describe the mammalian eye and explain the functions of its various parts, Explain the terms Myopia, hyper myopia astigmatism, cataracts, and night blindness., Name the various kinds of lenses that can be used to correct eye defects.
Define the term succession, Distinguish between primary and secondary succession, Discover a definite sequence of plants colonization

Define the term, State the factors and effects that may cause overcrowding
State the causes and effects of food shortage. 

list factors that may affect changes in the population, define dynamic equilibrium as related to different populations in a climax community, list some family planning methods in humans, and the importance of family planning and birth control.

Identify the various parts of the male and female reproductive system in man, Draw, label, and describe the structures of the male and female reproductive organs in man, State the function of the various parts of the male and female reproductive system in man

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