Today’s curriculum, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson plan, and lesson notes are all examples of instructional plans. This is because they help teachers decide what to teach in each subject and for each year. These educational plans, however, are not created by the teacher. They are prepared on a national or state scale. Some instructional plans are created by the teacher. They contain the unit and the lesson plans since the syllabus is derived from the curriculum and the scheme of work is derived from the syllabus.
The school curriculum is based on the National Education Policy. The National Policy on Education is based on the developmental needs, goals, and objectives of the country. The school curriculum is a set of experiences in an institution designed to meet a country’s developmental needs, goals, and objectives. The curriculum provides a basic summary of the work that will be completed throughout the school year. The syllabus specifies the work that must be completed each year. The work scheme specifies the tasks that must be completed during each term of the school year. The unit plan indicates that the work will be completed within a few weeks. While the lesson plans are being developed to be covered in a single lesson time. A lesson note is typically used to summarize the instructional plan. Diagrams can be used to depict the relationships between the various levels of instructional plans.
A curriculum is defined roughly as the sum of all student experiences that occur during the educational process. The phrase is frequently used to refer to a planned sequence of instruction or a perspective on the student’s experiences in terms of the educator’s or school’s instructional goals.
The school curriculum includes all of the planned experiences that a school wants its pupils to have so that by the end of schooling, children will have achieved the optimum development to function in their social context. The school curriculum seeks to help each student understand the significance of the past in connection to the present and future. It provides the student with the required abilities for modern living and assists the student in remaining a fully integrated member of his community.
Types Of Curriculum
In Nigeria, there is no one curriculum. Instead, many sorts of education are piled on top of one another. Most people mistake a curriculum for a basic and easy lesson plan or course outline, but it is considerably more nuanced and dynamic in reality. Understanding this complexity is essential for any educator who wishes to make a difference in the lives of their pupils or students. Learn more about the eight different types of curricula listed below.
- Written Curriculum: A written curriculum is what is formally documented and written down for teaching. These items may comprise teaching manuals, films, text, and other things required by educators. These resources are provided by the bigger school district or the school itself. They frequently hire or contract with a curriculum specialist to create a plan that fits certain aims and objectives.
- Taught Curriculum: This curriculum style pertains to how teachers teach. Because how an instructor teaches material varies from one to the next, this is a less predictable and less standardized type of curriculum. It can also differ depending on the tools available to a teacher. Experiments, demonstrations, and other sorts of involvement through group work and hands-on activities might be included. The taught curriculum is crucial for children in special education or who require various types of specific assistance.
- Supported Curriculum: A supported curriculum includes the supplementary tools, resources, and learning experiences found both within and outside of the classroom. These include textbooks, field trips, software, and technology, as well as other creative new ways to engage pupils. Teachers and other course participants are also included in the supporting curriculum.
- Assessed Curriculum: An assessed curriculum is sometimes referred to as a tested curriculum. It refers to quizzes, tests, and other procedures used to assess students’ progress. This can include a variety of evaluation strategies such as presentations, portfolios, demonstrations, and state and federal standardized assessments.
- Recommended Curriculum: This curriculum is based on what educational experts recommend. Curriculum recommendations can originate from a variety of sources, including nationally recognized experts, policymakers and legislators, and others. It emphasizes the content, skill sets, and tools that educators should prioritize in the classroom.
- Hidden Curriculum: A hidden curriculum is unplanned, but it has a huge impact on what pupils learn. This type of curriculum is not usually expressed or technically documented, and it incorporates implicit standards, unspoken expectations, and cultural norms and values.
A disguised curriculum can be difficult to adjust to or feel harshly judged by pupils from different backgrounds or cultures. A school’s or district’s allocation of money, time, and resources can also have an impact on a concealed curriculum. For example, if students are taught French instead of Spanish or Arabic as part of their schoolwork, their message may be that French is a more valuable language to study.
- Excluded Curriculum: The null curriculum is another name for the excluded curriculum. It refers to the content that is not covered in a course. Often, an educator or curriculum specialist considers that particular skill or topic is unnecessary or unnecessary to address. What is left out, whether intentionally or unintentionally, can mold pupils just as much as what is included. Students may not be educated about an ongoing dispute among experts in the field, or they may not be encouraged to think critically about a text.
- Learned Curriculum: What students take away from a course is referred to as their learned curriculum. This comprises the course material and knowledge they gained, but it can also involve changes in attitude and emotional well-being. Teachers must close the gap between what they expect their students to learn and what they learn.
The curriculum typically includes the following components:
- Instructional content
- Materials and resources
- Physical and mental activities for the students
- Assignments, tests, exams
- Student success evaluation methods
A syllabus is an outline and summary of the topics to be covered in a course of education or training. It describes something. A syllabus is often created by an exam board or by the professor who oversees or regulates the course quality.
A syllabus is a comprehensive overview of the work that will be completed in each class and subject over a year. This course material may be created by the school or imposed by external examination organizations. The syllabus for all secondary schools in Nigeria is usually made public by:
- West African Examination Council (WAEC)
- National Examination Council (NECO).
A syllabus is typically presented as a list of subjects that must be covered within a specific time frame.
The Fundamentals of a Good Syllabus
- Aim: The planned work should have a goal. Work relating to needs should be planned for both the students and the society they serve.
- Workload: It should have a reasonable amount of labor, but not be overburdened.
- Time – The job load should be able to be completed in a fair amount of time.
- Suitability: Work should be suitable for the age group and developmental stage for which the syllabus is intended. It should take into account the students’ prior knowledge, prior information, or ability.
- Correlation: it should be integrated or blended with other data courses taught in school.
The syllabus typically includes the following sections:
- Instructor and subject information
- Objectives and policies
- Grading and Evaluation system
- Learning resources
- Assignment, description, and deadlines.
|1||The curriculum is a general, standardized description of the main study units of the educational institution. Beyond the study program or course, It may even relate to the whole university||A syllabus is a detailed content plan for a particular subject|
|2||the curriculum is mandatory. It’s more like a global strategy, with almost no space for alterations in implementation||The Syllabus is highly flexible and may even change during the study process based on professor-student verbal agreements|
|3||The school authorities created the curriculum as a result of deeper analysis and discussions||The syllabus is designed based on the professor’s creativity, preferences, and approaches|
|4||a curriculum mostly focuses on the result of the study program as a product||The syllabus focused on day-to-day operations in class.|
|5||the curriculum doesn’t follow the personalized approach||The syllabus reflects the personal approach of the teacher|
|6||The level of seriousness of the curriculum assumes that it’s created once for a significantly long-term period||The Syllabus is designed for a certain period of a class studying a subject|
|7||The curriculum is mainly designed for teachers to plan their work, and there is usually no point in sharing it with students||The syllabus is given to students from the very beginning of their studies. It is mainly purposed to understand their benefits and responsibilities for the subject|
Scheme of work
The syllabus’s topics are broken down into a series of lessons in the scheme of work. A program of work is a clear and orderly declaration of the work that the instructor expects to complete in a specific period in any subject. The project will last a year and will be divided into weeks and/or months.
An example of a scheme of work is
|WEEK||TOPIC||CONTENT||BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVE||INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS||TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES||LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES|
|1||The major pillars of democracy||Definition of the constitution: sources and types 2. constitution as a major pillar of democracy 3. The merits and demerits of various types of constitution 4. Strong institutions e.g. the arms of government, armed forces, civil societies, etc.||Learners should be able to: 1. Define and explain the constitution 2. discuss the strong institution like the three Arms of government 3. Mention the merits and demerits of pillars of democracy||1. Nigerian constitution 2. Textbooks 3. Charts 4. Videotapes||Guide students to define and explain the meaning of the constitution 2. identifies the strong institutions e.g. Arms of government, Armed forces, civil societies, etc.||1. define and explain the types of constitutions 2. Explain the strong institutions like armed forces, civil societies, etc.|
|2.||The major pillars of democracy||Features of federalismMerits and demerits of the federalismLocal government outline citizens’ responsibilities Political parties and free press||Learners should be able to: 1. define and explain federalism and state and local government. 2. Outline citizen responsibilities 3. political parties and free press||1. Nigerian constitution 2. Textbooks 3. Charts 4. Videotapes||Guide students to examine federalism, state, and local government 2. Explain citizens’ responsibilities 3. Discuss political parties and free press||Define and explain the meaning of federalism, state and local governments 2. Analyze citizen’s responsibilities 3. Explain political parties and the free press.|
|3||The press||1. The activities of the press are ensuring democracy 2. freedom of press reasons for and how to ensure the freedom of the press. 3. Importance of F.O.I.B ( freedom of information Bill)||Learners should be able to: 1. List the activities of the press in ensuring democracy 2. state the reasons for the freedom of the press and how to ensure the freedom of the press. 3. outline the importance of F.O.I.B (Freedom of Information Bill)||1. Textbooks 2. newspaper/magazine||Leads the students to mention the activities of the press in ensuring democracy 2. state the reasons for the freedom of the press and how to ensure the freedom of the press||List the activities of the press in ensuring democracy 2. state the reasons for freedom of the press and how to ensure the freedom of press 3. outline the importance of F.O.I.B ( Freedom of Information Bill)|
|4||Brief history Background of UDHR||1. Meaning of UDHR universal declaration of Human rights 2. Historical background of UDHR||Learners should be able to: 1. Explain the meaning of UDHR 2. Give a brief historical background of UDHR||1. pictures 2. posters 3. illustrative diagrams 4. Articles of human rights declaration e.g code of conduct||1. leads students to explain the meaning of UDHR 2. Give the historical background of UDHR||1. Explain the meaning of UDHR 2. Discuss the historical background of UDHR|
|5||The seven core freedom of UDHR||1. Meaning of seven core freedom of UDHR 2. seven core freedoms of UDHR e.g freedom from discrimination, want, fear e.t.c.||Learners should be able to: 1. Explain the meaning of the seven core freedoms of UDHR 2. mention the seven core freedoms of UDHR||1. pictures 2. posters 3. Articles of human rights declaration e.g code of conduct 4. Illustrative diagrams e.t.c.||1. Explain the meaning of the seven core freedom of UDHR 2. Discuss the seven core freedom of UDHR||1. Explain the meaning of the seven core freedom of UDHR 2. mention (7) core freedom of UDHR|
|6||Responsibilities of individuals groups and government in UDHR||1. Role of individuals and groups e.g. Advocacy through print and electronic media, and awareness campaigns. Etc. 2. Roles of government e.g. enactment of laws establishment of agencies the NAPTIP, legal aid council||Learners should be able to: 1. mention the roles of individuals, and groups in UDHR. 2. Explain the role of government in UDHR||1. Video clips and films 2. posters and pamphlets 3. photographs||1. Explain the roles of individuals and groups 2. Discuss the roles of government in UDHR||1. Dramatize the roles of individuals and groups 2. Locate and visit government agencies concerned with UDHR|
|7||Cultism||1. Definition of cultism, different cult groups and their symbols e.g. black ax, buccaneer, Eiye, etc. 2. Origin of cultism 3. Reasons for establishing and joining cults||Learners should be able to: 1. Define and explain the meaning of cultism 2. identify the different cult groups and their symbols 3. state the origins and reasons for cult groups||1. Textbooks 2. Photographs 3. Newspaper/magazine cuttings 4. Video clips 5. Resource persons||1. Defines and explain cultism 2. list the different cult groups and their symbols 3. Explain the origins origins and reasons for cultism||1. define and explain cultism 2. name the different cult groups and their symbols 3. state the origin and reasons for cultism|
|8||Cultism (contd)||1. Consequences of cultism e.g. Expulsion, violence, murder, spiritual problems, etc. 2. preventive measures against cultism e.g abiding in rules and regulations, studying hard in school, faith in God as protector and provider||Learners should be able to 1. Explain the consequences of cultism 2. Discuss the preventive measures against cultism||1. textbooks 2. photographs 3. Newspaper/ magazine cuttings 4. Video clips 5. Resource persons||1. Analyze the consequences of cultism 2. Lead students on ways to prevent cultism||1. mention the consequences of cultism 2. Discuss ways of preventing cultism|
|9||Orderliness||1. Meaning of orderliness 2. Examples of orderliness in the society: Listening skills, driving skills, decorum, queuing culture etc. 3. Roles of orderliness in the society, e.g. by showing good examples to people, training people around you, correcting younger ones patiently, to be careful in whatever you do||Learners should be able to 1. Define and explain meaning of orderliness 2. Enumerate some examples of orderliness 3. State and discuss the role of orderliness in the society||1. Video clips 2. Photographs 3. pamphlets 4. textbooks||1. Defines and explain orderliness to the students 2. Guides the students in the discussion and examples of orderliness in the society 3. leads discussion on orderliness||1.listen and ask questions where necessary 2. contribute to the discussion and list their own example 3.state and discuss the roles orderliness play in our society.|
|10||Respect for constituted authority||1. Meaning of constituted authority 2. types of constituted authority 3. Importance of constituted authority||Learners should be able to able to: 1. Define and explain the meaning of constituted authority 2. state and discuss types of constituted authority 3 Explain the importance of constituted authority||TextbookPicturesPostersChartsMagazines||1. Define and explain constituted authority 2. List types of constituted authority 3. Guides the students in enumeration of the importance of constituted authority||1. Define and explain constituted authority 2. Name types of constituted authority 3. Enumerate the importance of constituted authority to people around|
|11||Important of citizenship education||Meaning of citizenship educationDuties and obligations of citizen to their communities e.g. security, obedience to rules and regulations, environmental sanitation, promotion of peace etc.||Learners should be able to 1. Define and explain citizenship education 2. Indentify and describe their duties and obligations to their communities,||1. picture 2. photographs of citizens at functions e.g. election, environmental sanitation||1. Define citizenship education 2. leads the student in mentioning their duties and obligations to their communities||1. Listen to teacher’s explanation of citizenship education 2. dramatize their duties and obligations to their communities|
|12||Revision and examination|
The Benefits of Using a Scheme of work
- A scheme work is a methodical and logical manner of organizing your tasks.
- A strategy for completing the task
- It pushes students to finish coursework within a certain amount of time or timeframe.
- In an emergency, a substitute teacher can readily take over for the regular/substantive teacher.
- It is a valuable tool for evaluating the syllabus’s coverage.
The Unit Plan
A unit plan is the planned content and learning experiences developed from an analysis of the term’s scheme of work, which frequently exists as interrelated ideas in a specific subject that is expected to be covered in a few weeks (about 2-6 weeks).
For the following reasons, the instructor should prepare the teaching-learning unit:
When teachers develop unit plans from the unit scheme of work, there is a better chance that the necessary components of the syllabus will be adequately covered before the examination.
Benefit Of Unit Plan
- It allows for more efficient use of time.
- It helps the instructor decide what to teach, how to teach it, and with what.
- It helps with educational supervision. substitute educators
The Lesson Plan
The lesson plan is a prepared and organized amount of subject matter and learning experiences that the teacher will transmit to the students with instructions on how the instruction will take place throughout a class period. The lesson plan can alternatively be defined as a systematic series of progressively organized subject content and learning experiences derived from an examination of the instruction.
A lesson plan includes declarations of behaviorally stated objectives as well as other aspects such as instructional materials and evaluation plans to assist the teacher in implementing the curriculum in the classroom for one lesson time.
Importance Of A Lesson Plan
- Curriculum implementation requires lesson plans. They are used to guarantee that the teacher follows the necessary methods and procedures when delivering instructional presentations.
- In the classroom, no time is wasted on unnecessary topics.
- In terms of content and aims, meaningful goals are pursued.
- Adequate materials are chosen and utilized in light of the objectives.
- The appropriate evaluation processes and instruments are applied.
- When the class teacher is unable to attend the class, a substitute teacher can be instructed to cover the class.
- The most important content for learners has been identified.
A lesson note is a document in which the teacher describes the flow of the lesson and its impact on the students. A lesson note is typically a handwritten document in which the teacher writes what is being taught and the activities that the pupils will participate in.
Importance Of Lesson Notes
Preparing for lessons by preparing lesson notes is beneficial to both the teacher and the students in the following ways.
- It is a Lesson Preparation Guide: It helps the teacher become more acquainted with the materials to be taught. You have the opportunity to make a number of critical decisions when preparing for your lecture. These considerations include:
- The best teaching aids to utilize;
- The best teaching methods to use; and the order in which the learning material will be given.
As a result, a lesson note acts as a guide for lesson planning.
- It is a manual for effective teaching: Only when the intended objectives are achieved is teaching considered effective. To accomplish this, keep the established objectives in mind at all times while teaching.
- It saves time: Lecture notes save the teacher from wasting time by directing him to the important aspects of the lesson. In this manner, valuable time is saved. It is usual to encounter a teacher who did not prepare his lesson. Such a teacher is disorganized and unsure of himself. When he is halfway through his teaching session, he sometimes runs out of time for the lesson. He may continue to waste time on extraneous instances and illustrations, as well as digressing at times. However, if you arrange your lecture by taking notes, all of these issues will be minimized.
- It conserves energy: Lesson notes with relevant points spare the teacher from digression. It also aids him in conserving energy. In fact, if you do not prepare for your lesson, you may end up talking about irrelevant topics and developing a headache. But when you’re prepared with a lesson plan, you can go right to the point and make an impact.
- It also acts as a reminder: It is natural to forget, but with the lesson note handy, you can easily look up any information you may have overlooked. This is typically simply because the lecture note is skeletal or rudimentary, with the major principles or procedures visible at a look. However, you should not get into the habit of constantly checking your lecture notes. Otherwise, students may form a negative opinion of you.
Similarities Between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note
- Both lesson plans and lesson notes are related to the teaching and learning process that occurs inside the classroom.
- These documents allow the teacher to assess and evaluate the students as well as the teaching methods that he employs.
- As a result, both lesson plans and lesson notes assist the teacher in comprehending the level of knowledge acquisition of the students.
Difference Between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note
|S/N||Lesson Plan||Lesson Notes|
|1||A Lesson plan is a drawing of the steps/actions through which a teacher expects to deliver a lesson in order to attain the objectives of the lesson without unwanted details||A lesson note is a detailed explanation of the steps/actions or a reminder of what a teacher should do.|
|2||Lesson plans incorporate educational theories and follow instructional design principles||lesson note does follow instructional design principles through the explanation of the steps may incorporate one or more educational theories|
|3||The lesson plan has standard components||lesson note does not except when written together with a lesson plan|
|4||Lesson plans have more than one format||lesson note is usually in essay format|
|5||The lesson plan is an official school record so it is submitted for periodic markings||lesson note is normally not submitted except when written together with lesson plan|