2022/2023 Third Term Biology Scheme Of Work For SS2

Biology Scheme of work

UNIFIED SCHEME OF WORK FOR BIOLOGY

CLASS: SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TWO

TERM: THIRD -TERM SCHEME OF WORK

WEEK 1

General Cleaning And Revision

WEEK 2

TOPIC

Nervous Coordination

CONTENT

  1. Meaning of coordination
  2. Differences between the nervous system and endocrine system
  3. The nervous system in mammals

I CNS(central nervous system)

  1. PNS (peripheral nervous system )
  2. The brain, position, structure ,and functions

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to:

  1. Define coordination
  2. State the differences between the nervous system and endocrine system
  3. Locate the position of the CNS in a dissected vertebrate
  4. Define the CNS and PNS
  5. Describe the structure of the brain and list the functions of its various organs.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

  1. photographs or charts of the CNS of a mammal
  2. a dissected vertebrate to show the position of its brain
  3. permanently prepare slides of the transverse section of the vertebrate CNS

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. the teacher leads the learner to dissect a small vertebrate to display the brain(in the skull)
  2. teacher exposes the brain to show the colour of the outer part

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. learners observe the brain in a dissected vertebrate
  2. learners observe the differences in the structure of the brain

WEEK 3

TOPIC

Nervous Coordination

CONTENT

  1. The spinal cord
  2. position, structures, and functions
  3. peripheral nervous system
  4. somatic nervous system
  5. autonomic nervous system parasympathetic nervous system
  6. sympathetic nervous system
  7. structure and function of the nervous system

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to

  1. describe the spinal cords and list their functions
  2. state the structural differences between the brain and the spinal cord
  3. identify the PNS and describe its functions
  4. describe a typical neuron
  5. group neuron according to the functions as found in vertebrate
  6. explain the process of impulse transmission

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

  1. photographs /charts of the PNS of the mammals
  2. slides of neuron, microscope, charts, or model of a typical neuron
  3. handkerchief
  4. a chart showing the process of impulse 

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. Teachers provide a chart showing the PNS of a mammal
  2. teacher shows learners permanent slides and charts of a neuron

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. learners observe the spinal cord in dissected vertebrate
  2. learners observe differences in the structure of the brain and spinal cord
  3. learners draw and label the different types of neurons, noting the differences in position structure and basic parts

WEEK 4

TOPIC

Nervous Coordination

CONTENT

  1. reflex and voluntary action
  2. definition and characteristics of reflex action
  3. definition and characteristic of voluntary action (examples of voluntary and reflex action )
  4. simple reflex arc
  5. coordinated reflex [par lox  (1910)] experiments on dogs, food, and bell
  6. differences between a reflex action and a coordinated reflex

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able

  1. Define reflex actions
  2. State the characteristic of reflex action
  3. Define voluntary actions
  4. List the characteristics of voluntary actions
  5. Distinguish between a reflex action and a coordinate reflex action given a few examples of each

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

  1. Charts showing a simple reflex arc
  2. Dog, food, and bell.

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. The teacher guides the learners to perform experiments to show reflex action
  2. Teacher slicking a handkerchief across the learner’s eyes
  3. Teachers guide the learners to perform experiment coordinated reflex

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. Learners explain experiments on reflex action
  2. Learners observe and record their observation of coordinated reflex

WEEK 5

TOPIC

Sense Organ

CONTENT

  1. organ of smell
  2. the mechanism of smelling with the help of ovary chemoreception
  3. adaptation for survival
  4. organ of taste
  5. taste buds on the tongue and parts played in tasting
  6. the skin as a sense organ
  7. structure of the ear and part played by `its various parts
  8. care of the ears

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to:

  1. list the major sense organs of smell and taste
  2. identify the different parts of the tongue associated with sweetness, bitterness, salty taste, and sour taste 
  3. draw the skin showing the different receptors present

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

  1. bottled NH3 GAS
  2. mirror
  3. chats, or photographs showing the different areas of the tongue sensitive to different taste
  4. ice cubes/pricking object

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. the teacher leads the learners to perceive the releasing of a smell into the air (e.g.NH3)
  2. leads learners to taste bitter leaf, salt, and sugar brought from home
  3. applies various objects on learners’ skin for a sensation   of touch
  4. shows charts of an LS of the skin.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. Learners smell the released gas
  2. Notes areas of the tongue which are sensitive to sweetness, bitterness, etc.
  3. Draw well labeled drawing of the LS of the skin

WEEK 6

TOPIC

Sense Organ

CONTENT

  1. Organ of sight 
  2. The eyes and their various parts
  3. functions of the eyes and part played by light, image formation, and accommodation
  4. Eye defects (myopia, hyper myopia pres. Biopic, astigmatism, cataract, night blindness)
  5. Care of the eye

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to

  1. Explain the function of the eye
  2. Describe the mammalian eye and explain the functions of its various parts.
  3. Explain the terms Myopia, hyper myopia astigmatism, cataracts, night blindness.
  4. Name the various kinds of lenses that can be used to correct eye defects.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

  1. Charts, photographs, and models of the mammalian eye
  2. Charts on eye defect correction
  3. Charts o image formation and eye defects

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. With the aid of charts, the teacher explains the cause and effect of the myopic and hyper metro pic on image formation
  2. Uses charts to explain the correction of myopic and astigmatism with the aid of a concave lens, convex lens, and cylindrical lens. 

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. Learners identify the parts of the eye
  2. Study the pathway of light during image formation and the placement of the lens in front of the original lens in order to correct eye defects

WEEK 7

TOPIC

Ecology Population

CONTENT

  1. Succession
  2. Meaning of succession
  3. Structural chaise in species composition variety and increase in number

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to:

  1. Define the term succession
  2. Distinguish between primary and secondary succession
  3. Discover a definite sequence of plants colonization

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

  1. Mapped out the bare ground and a mapped-out piece of lawn that had earlier been identified
  2. Pond, or lakes to observe colonizers 

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. Map out an area on bare ground and another lawn that has been cleared (within the school premises)
  2. Take students to a nearby pond.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. Learners study succession on both pieces of land and record findings over time (about two weeks).
  2. Compare the available space of movement of each member of the class when
  3. Only the class members are present
  4. Members of another class are added.

WEEK 8

TOPIC

Ecology Population Cont.

CONTENT

  1. Overcrowding
  2. Population density
  3. Importance features affecting population space
  4. Relationship between competition and succession
  5. Factors that may cause overcrowding, e.g. mortality, reduce death rate, absence of predators
  6. Adaptation to avoid overcrowding

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to :

  1. Define the term overcrowding
  2. State factors that many cause overcrowding
  3. State the effects of overcrowding
  4. State the causes of food shortage
  5. List the effects of food shortage 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

Charts showing agents/means of dispersal

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. Teachers to describe what they think will happen in poultry where the feed for the chicks was reduced from 10 bags to 2 bags a day.
  2. Display a chart showing agents and means of dispersal.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. Observe the behavior of five students sharing a small seat
  2. Write an essay on the effects of reducing the feed supplied to poultry from 10 to 2 bags a day.

WEEK 9

TOPIC

Balance In Nature

CONTENT

  1. Factors affecting population
  2. Abiotic factors
  3. Biotic factors
  4. Dynamic equilibrium in nature and factors that maintain it
  5. density-independent factors like the availability of food
  6. density depends on factors of natural disasters
  7. family planning natural and artificial method used by man to control his population

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to:

  1. list factors that may affect changes in the population
  2. define dynamic equilibrium as related to different populations in a climax community
  3. define family planning
  4. list some family planning methods in human
  5. state the importance of family planning and birth control.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

  1. A lawn around the school premises for study by student
  2. Seedlings of maize planted in a small container e.g. empty tin of evaporated milk
  3. Seedlings of cowpea planted in a container
  4. Charts showing family planning methods.
  5. Condom contraceptive pill, spermicidal cream in the tablet. 

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. Map out an area, and lawn within the school compound for studying.
  2. Plant, seedlings to show inter-specific competition
  3. Display a chart showing family planning methods

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. Learners note the different populations of organisms that inhabit a given lawn.

WEEK 10

TOPIC

Reproductive System And Reproduction In Humans

CONTENT

  1. Reproductive system in male and female (human)
  2. Functions of its various parts
  3. The structure of male sperm cell and structure of ovum
  4. Fertilization
  5. Fusion of gamete
  6. Implantation
  7. Similarities and differences between the male and female reproductive systems
  8. Differences between sperm and egg.

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to

  1. Identify the various parts of the male and female reproductive system in man
  2. Draw, label, and describe the structures of the male and female reproductive organs in man
  3. State the function of the various parts of the male and female reproductive system in man.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

Well labeled chart of a male and female reproductive system

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

  1. The teacher shows charts of the male and female reproductive system
  2. Shows charts of male (sperm)female gamete
  3. Show charts of fusion (i.e. a sperm cell and ovum)

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  1. Learners identify the different reproductive organs in the system
  2. Compare the male reproductive system with the female.
  3. Compare the gametes and note features.

WEEK 11

TOPIC

Reproduction In Human

CONTENT

  1. Development of embryo
  2. The selective exchange between mother and child
  3. Removal of excretory products from the fetus
  4. Survival conditions like food, oxygen, amniotic fluid, placenta, and umbilical cord
  5. Reproductive health
  6. Types of harmful traditional incision female genital mutilation(F.G.M)
  7. Care of reproductive organs
  8. Importance of prenatal care
  9. Effect of STIs and HIV and AIDS on fetus and infant
  10. Risk involves in child delivery
  11. Importance of breastfeeding
  12. Cause of infant mortality, birth defect, and the health-related problems
  13. Importance of knowledge of genetic disorders in family

BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES

Learners should be able to:

  1. Explain the process of fertilization in man
  2. List the conditions necessary for survival
  3. State the types of a traditional incision

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

Charts and photographs showing the developed fetus, its surrounding amniotic fluid, placenta, and attachment to the mother’s uterus

TEACHER ACTIVITIES

The teacher shows charts of a developing fetus

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners identify the different conditions that aid the survival of the fetus

WEEK 12

Revision

WEEK 13

Examination

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